Indiana

A MINI LOOK
AT
INDIANA’S HISTORY
As with many other midwestern and southern states, there is much evidence of the ancient Mound Builder civilizations found in Indiana. Several areas, including Mounds State Park and Angel Mound near Evansville, preserve the impressive legacy of these peoples. The Mississippian culture, the last of these groups, has left remains of a large village near Newburgh on the Ohio River. When the first Europeans arrived, the area was inhabited by descendants of the Woodland culture, tribes that spoke Algonquian languages. The Miami and Potawatomi Indians migrated south and settled in the northern portion of the state, while the Kickapoo and Wea journeyed from areas south of Indiana and settled in the north.

In the year 1679, a group of Frenchmen led by Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, were the first whites to set foot in Indiana as they were exploring the Mississippi valley. In the first several decades of the eighteenth century, French settlements were established at Vincennes; at Quiatenon, near present-day Lafayette; and at Fort Miami, near present-day Fort Wayne.

When the French and Indian War ended in 1763, Britain gained control of French Canada and French-controlled American territory and also Indiana, although Chief Pontiac resisted giving up some British-claimed villages until 1765. In 1779, American colonel George Rogers Clark captured Vincennes from the British during the American Revolutionary War. After the war, Indiana became a part of the U.S. in what was then known as the Northwest Territory (which also included Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota). Congress, under the Ordinance of 1787, set up an organizational structure to govern the territory In 1811, in response to an Indian uprising, William Henry Harrison and over 1,000 troops attacked and defeated a force of Shawnee Indians lead by The Shawnee Prophet (brother of Chief Tecumseh). Harrison then burned their village and left. As a result, Harrison was made a national hero. British interest in the area continued until Great Britain was finally defeated in the War of 1812.

Statehood
With U.S. control over the Northwest Territory, settlers began to move into the established towns and villages only to be met with resistance on the part of the Indians. In 1791, the Miami Indians inflicted heavy casualties on federal troops near Fort Miami, but were defeated three years later by troops under the command of Gen. Anthony Wayne. The final conflict with Indians in Indiana occurred as the Miami were defeated near Peru in 1812.

In 1800, the Northwest Territory was reorganized as the Indiana Territory with Vincennes as the capital. In 1805, Michigan was detached from the Indiana Territory, and four years after that the territory was reduced to Indiana’s present borders with William Henry Harrison as its first governor. In the year 1816, Indiana was allowed into the Union as the 19th state with Corydon.  It was the state capital until 1825 until its capital switched to Indianapolis in that same year.

In 1846, the last Indians (Potawatomi) were forced from the state, and in 1851 a new state constitution excluded blacks from settling in the state. Despite strong sympathies for the Confederate cause, Indiana remained part of the Union during the Civil War. Only one raid took place on Indiana soil during the Civil War. In 1863, Confederate General John Hunt Morgan led raids into Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio before being captured by Union troops.

Later, blacks began to make headway in Indiana life and politics. Gary was one of the first cities in the United States to elect a Black mayor (Richard Hatcher) in 1967. The first Black congress member (Katie Hall) was a woman who was elected in 1983.

Indiana was the first state in the Union to provide a state-supported school system.  In 1816, the modern school system was founded, and in !907, high schools were added to the state system.

Industrialization
The completion of a rail link between Indianapolis and Madison in 1847 provided a  boost to Indiana’s agricultural production  which included hogs, timber, and corn.  Indeed,  extensive railroad and canal building had so bankrupted the state that the constitution of 1851 required a balanced state budget. After  the Civil War, Indiana’s economic activity was  fueled by manufacturing as well as farming and timber. Some of the industries setting up  shop in the state included glass making, leather working, brick making, and brewing.  In 1905, U.S. Steel opened its largest   plant in  what was to become Gary as Indiana became a  leading producer of iron and steel. During the  1920’s, Indiana lost its car-manufacturing plants (except Studebaker) to Detroit.  Indiana’s economy is still largely split between farming and manufacturing.

New Harmony
This utopian community was originally  founded as Harmony, a village on the Wabash  River, by George Rapp, who moved his disciples there from Pennsylvania in 1815.  Rapp sold the village to Robert Owen, who  renamed it New Harmony, in 1824. As with  others at the time, Owen wished to establish a secular communitarian society that would treat  equality and property in a new way, He wanted the competitive system of capitalism to be replaced by cooperation in which laborers would would receive “the value of their work.”   Unfortunately, overcrowding and confusion of the experiment lasted only a few years.  After the demise, an intellectual center was established by some of the remaining members.

1679 Rene-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, passes through Indiana while exploring the Mississippi valley.
1725 Jesuits found permanent settlement at Vincennes.
1763 Treaty of Paris forces France to cede control of lands including Indiana to Britain.
1779 American George Rogers Clark defeats British at Vincennes. 17 A7 Creation of the Northwest

1809 Indiana Territory reorganized to reflect present-day boundaries.
1811 William Henry Harrison defeats Shawnee Indians at the Battle of Tippecanoe.
1816 Indiana admitted to the Union as the nineteenth state.
1824 Robert Owen founds utopian colony of New Harmony.
1825 State capital moved to Indianapolis.
1851 New constitution forbidding black settlers is adopted.
1853 Wabash and Erie Canal is opened.
1888 Benjamin Harrison is elected twenty-third president of the U.S.
1894 Elwood Haynes tests his one- cylinder horseless carriage in Kokomo.
1905 U.S. Steel opens its largest plant at Gary, founded on the site to house the workers.

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George Washington-The American Founding Fathers

George Washington is the first American president (1789 – 1797) after he had been serving as commander-in-chief during the American Revolution. He was born in Westmoreland County, Virginia, on February 22, 1732 as a son to Mary and Augustine. George Washington is also called ‘the father of his nation’ because of the crucial role he played in creating the United States of America. Continue reading George Washington-The American Founding Fathers

John Adams

John Adams Jr. was born on October 30, 1735 in Braintree (now Quincy), Massachusetts. Adams was the first Vice President and the second President of the United States, from 1797 to 1801. His son, John Quincy Adams, later became America’s sixth President. John Adams was author, lawyer, diplomat, and statesman, and was one of the leaders of American movement to gain independence from Great Britain. Continue reading John Adams

Thomas Jefferson

One of America’s Founding Fathers, Thomas Jefferson, was an outspoken advocate for democracy. Jefferson, the 3rd President of the United States (from 1801 to 1809), was also the foremost author of the 1776 U.S. Declaration of Independence. In 1800, in the turbulent days of party conflicts, Jefferson was writing in a personal letter: “On the altar of God almighty I have sworn everlasting  hostility against any form of tyranny over man’s mind.” Continue reading Thomas Jefferson

Washington, D.C.

THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
WASHINGTON, D.C.
The District of Columbia (or “the District” as the residents name it), and the city of Washington, are exactly the same thing. The site of the capital of the U.S. was chosen by Congress, and through the years, Washington D.C. has been bringing together the most famous and influential politicians and statesmen of the nation. The British burnt down the city of Washington during the War of 1812, and during the Civil War its capture was severely threatened.

All through the city’s judicial, executive, and legislative halls there have been many events that regularly have affected national and international policies and happenings. Washington has also frequently been the center of the nation’s mourning, and the place to honor the nation’s martyred presidents.

The grandeur of the city’s monuments and buildings as well as the frequent presence of glamorous world figures are attracting visitors and tourists from all across the world. Washington D.C. has really become an international center of world affairs and a true metropolis. The city plays an increasingly role in world affairs and that shows also in its citizens’ welfare.

  • The District name origins from Christopher Columbus
  • The city’s name origin: George Washington
  • Originally the city was named “the Federal City”
  • Washington also goes by the nicknames: America’s First City or National Capital
“there was no nation before that had the opportunity offered  to deliberately choose the site where the nation’s capital city should be established.”

Pierre Charles L’Enfant, the planner of America’s new Capital

HISTORIC MOMENTS
In the year 1790 it was decided by law that a new national capital would be founded on the banks of the Potomac River, and along the Maryland-Virginia border.

George Washington laid the Capital’s cornerstone in 1793. Washington was actually a well-skilled mason.

The federal government then moved to Washington in 1800 together with  the 138 members of Congress, the Supreme Court justices, the Circuit Court justices, and no less than 300 clerks. They all were crowding into their new quarters in the still unfinished Capitol. Also the new President’s house was not completed yet, and rumor has it that Mrs. John Adams used the East Room to dry the first family’s laundry.

During the War of 1812, the British burned the new city of Washington and First Lady Dolly Madison is said to be able to escape while carrying no more than a portrait of George Washington, a few valuables, and a couple of official documents.

In 1824, Marquis de Lafayette was visiting Washington, and he received the “unimaginable sum” of $200,000 as a gift. De Lafayette was actually the first dignitary from overseas who ever addressed the Congress. It wasn’t until the mid 1840’s that around one-third of Washington D.C.’s territory was given back to thee state of Virginia.

If the Confederates had been following up on their great victory in 1861 (the first Battle of Bull Run was that year on July 21st), Washington might as well have been overtaken by the Confederates, but they didn’t.

Washington was also the city where in Ford’s Theater, Abraham Lincoln got shot in 1865, on April 14th. The city was mourning the nation’s leader who martyred as the Civil War’s victory was a bout to happen. The play that was performed when Lincoln got shot was “Our American Cousin”. And also President James Garfield was shot in a Washington railway station on September 19th, 1881.

In 1894, together with some 300 followers, Jacob Coxey “invaded” the city of Washington in protest against huge unemployment, and as he was accused of “walking on grass”, Coxey got arrested, and all of his supporters were dispersed.

The nation’s Presidential Residence, The White House, was totally restored in the early 1950’s. The restoration was completed in 1952. Washington residents were granted presidential voting rights in 1961, when the 23rd Amendment was ratified.

1990 was the year that former Washington Mayor Marion S. Barry received a 6-month jail sentence for the possession of cocaine, but in 1994, Barry already had returned to office. Also in 1994 came the White House under attack when a disturbed gunman was spraying the White House’s north side with bullets from a rifle, and later that year, the President’s Residence’s s South Lawn was the site where a pilot was crashing a small plane.

 

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Texas


A BRIEF HISTORY OF TEXAS

President Thomas Jefferson wrote: “The Techas province will certainly be our union;s richest state, without any exception.”

Texas was labeled as “a giant” by novelist Edna Ferber, and she couldn’t have been more right. The total combined wealth of Texas’ natural resources is surpassing the resource of all the other states by far. If Texas were a separate and independent country, the nation would be ranking 11th in the world when it comes to wealth.

Texas is leading the nation in overall productivity, and the state’s history reveals one of America’s most heroic and impressive occurrences: the defense of the Alamo. Texas’ residents are known for being friendly, and they indeed are. The state’s motto is “Friendship”.

Back in the day the quintessential Texan would have been a a frontier cowboy wearing a 10-gallon hat, but the modern-day Texas symbol will probably more appropriately be represented by a Texas oil field laborer or a scientist operating a laboratory. Texas still is a “frontier state”, though these days the frontier is definitely the U.S. space program. It may be not surprising that the giant state of Texas has built the largest of all U.S. state capitols to symbolize its strength.

KEY TEXAS FEATURES


• Greatest flowers varieties.

• Greatest reptiles varieties.

• U.S. helium production leader.

• First U.S. state in petroleum refining capacity.

• First U.S. state in the production of asphalt.

• First U.S. state in the production of cotton.

• Produces more chemicals from seawater than any other country.

• Only U.S. state that has 5 major ports.

HISTORIC MOMENTS
In 1535, a shipwrecked group of people that was led by Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, managed to free itself from Indian captivity on one of the islands just off the coast of Texas, and they set out on an incredibly dangerous journey across the region, and returned to Mexico. In 1541, the famous Francisco Vasquez de Coronado expedition managed to cross the Rio Grande.

The European settlers founded their first permanent settlement, Yslata, in the year 1682, at a location that we now know as Texas, and in the period 1700 – 1750, around a dozen missions were established in Tem as the outposts of civilization.

In 1819, it was decided that the Red and Sabine rivers were the eastern and northern boundaries. Noteworthy is that, before Moses died in 1820, Stephen and Moses Austin had already set up a American foothold in Texas, and later, in the 1830’s, the American presence in Texas started to increase considerably.

Noah Smithwick wrote on a 1828 Texas wedding: “When young folks were dancing in those days, they danced, they ‘shuffled’ and ‘double-shuffled,’ they wired’ and ‘cut the wing of a pigeon,’ making even the splinters fly…”

Around 1835, the Texas Americans came to the conclusion that they would be better off if they were independent from Mexico, and the San Antonio siege was so successful that the town fell in December that year.

To re-take San Antonio, the Mexican army leader Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna went to the city in February 1836. He found the defenders at the Alamo, an old mission, and what following was a lengthy siege. His Mexican forces overwhelmed the defenders and killed them that year on March 6. Just one of the American defenders could escape. Later Santa Anna went on to Goliad to capture and murder 330 Texans.

Alamo Commander William Barret Travis wrote: “The enemy was demanding a surrender at discretion, or if not, the garrison can expect to be put to the sword, but I shall never retreat or surrender, it’s victory or death.”

In 1836. Sam Houston, the Texan dynamo, then led his armed forces eastward to lure Santa Anna into a highly uncomfortable position. Houston defeated Santa Anna’s troops at the decisively important Battle of San Jacinto (April 21, 1836), and the Mexican leader was captured.

Sam Houston said that day: “This morning we are preparing to challenge Santa Anna. This is the only real chance we have to save Texas. Texas should have come up with 4,000 men, but we only are around seven hundred. Let’s go to conquer Santa Anna. Later Houston said: “Victory is for certain. We all should trust in the Lord and have no fear. And do remember the Alamo”.

Later in the year 1836, the people of Texas elected Sam Houston to be the first Independent Republic of Texas’ President. After a mere 10 years of it’s cherished independence, Texas became the Union’s 28th state on December 29, 1845. As discussions and divisions over American slavery policies were increasing, Sam Houston became Texas governor in the year 1859. In 1936, Texas celebrated the Texas Centennial in Dallas.

On January 1861, Texas decided to secede, despite the objections of Houston, and subsequently governor Houston resigned. All through the Civil War, Texas was furnishing huge quantities of food and required materials, and later, on March 30, 1870, Texas became re-admitted to the Union and a brand new constitution was turned into law in 1876 (on February 15th).

In the period 1870 – 1890, more than 10 million cattle found their way from Texas to markets all across the nation. In 1900, on September 8th, a terrible hurricane hit Galveston on the Gulf Coast to destroy the city. More than 6,000 residents were killed and some 8,000 were left homeless.

in 1937, a New London school explosion caused thee death of over 300 teachers and students.

Moe than 750,000 Texans were sent to World War II, and 23,022 did not return as they had lost their lives.

In 1963, a serious border dispute with the state of Mexico was finally settled.

When John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas (November 22nd, 1963), Lyndon B. Johnson, a Texan native, succeeded to the U.S. presidency.

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